Estrogens are a group of hormones that play an important role in the normal sexual and reproductive development in women. They are also sex hormones. The woman's ovaries make most estrogen hormones, although the adrenal glands and fat cells also make small amounts of the hormones. In addition to regulating the menstrual cycle, estrogen affects the reproductive tract, the urinary tract, the heart and blood vessels, bones, breasts, skin, hair, mucous membranes, pelvic muscles, and the brain. Secondary sexual characteristics, such as pubic and armpit hair, also start to grow when estrogen levels rise.
Sex hormones and your heart
Sex hormones and your heart - Harvard Health
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Hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal HPG axis that regulate reproductive function have multiple effects on the development, maintenance and function of the brain. Sex differences in cognitive functioning have been reported in both health and disease, which may be partly attributed to sex hormones. Hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal HPG axis that regulate reproductive function are also potent neurosteroids and have multiple effects on the development, maintenance and function of the brain [ 1 ]. Sex differences in the brain and behaviour depend on a range of social and biological influences, the latter including genetic and epigenetic factors, sex chromosomes, mitochondria from the mother, and sex hormones. The focus of the current review is to provide an overview of the literature on sex differences and the role of sex hormones in relation to cognitive functioning throughout the lifespan and the aging process.
The present study investigates the relationship of circulating sex hormone levels and gender role to gray matter volumes in sexually dimorphic brain areas and explores, whether these relationships are modulated by biological sex as assigned at birth based on sexual anatomy or oral contraceptive OC use. To that end, high resolution structural MRI scans, sex hormone levels and gender role self-assessments were obtained in a large sample 89 men, 89 naturally cycling NC women, and 60 OC users. In accordance with our hypotheses, a significant positive association of testosterone to hippocampal volumes was observed in women irrespective of OC use. In addition several differences between OC-users and NC women were identified. Sex differences in brain structure and function have long been a matter of debate and have attracted considerable research interest, as they are assumed to underlie sex differences in behavior e.